Category: News Modafinil

Dave Lewis joins

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Dave Lewis joins the Modafinilup project as a highly esteemed pharmacologist and researcher, bringing with him a wealth of expertise and experience. His inclusion in the project promises to accelerate its progress and further enhance its impact on the field of pharmaceutical research. In this blog post, we delve into the significance of Dave Lewis’s involvement and explore the benefits it brings to the project.

Dave Lewis - Expert Pharmacologist and Researcher

The project is a cutting-edge initiative focused on advancing the understanding and applications of modafinil, a potent pharmaceutical compound known for its cognitive-enhancing properties. With Dave Lewis joining the project, the team gains a renowned expert in the field, enabling them to push the boundaries of research and innovation.

Dave Lewis: Expert Pharmacologist and Researcher

Dave Lewis is an accomplished pharmacologist and researcher with an impressive track record in the pharmaceutical industry. With over two decades of experience, Lewis has made significant contributions to the field through his extensive knowledge and groundbreaking discoveries. His expertise spans various therapeutic areas, including neuropharmacology, cognitive enhancement, and psychopharmacology.

Enhancing the Project

By joining the ModUP project, Dave Lewis brings invaluable insights and a fresh perspective that will greatly benefit the initiative. His deep understanding of modafinil’s mechanisms of action and its potential applications will allow the team to refine their research methodologies and accelerate the development of new findings. Lewis’s research has already played a pivotal role in shedding light on the intricate workings of modafinil and its effects on cognitive performance. Through his previous studies, he has demonstrated the compound’s potential to improve wakefulness, enhance focus, and boost overall cognitive function. With his expertise now integrated into the project, the team is poised to explore new avenues and uncover groundbreaking discoveries.

Drugs of Varying Performance in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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Sleep is an essential aspect of our daily lives, playing a crucial role in promoting overall health and well-being. However, for individuals suffering from obstructive sleep apnea, a sleep disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep, quality sleep becomes a constant struggle. To help manage OSA, various drugs have been developed with differing levels of efficacy. In this article, we will explore some of the drugs commonly used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and evaluate their performance.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and modafinil

Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction to Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  2. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
  3. Oral Appliances
  4. Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation
  5. Upper Airway Surgery
  6. Pharmacological Interventions
    • Modafinil
    • Armodafinil
    • Protriptyline
    • Acetazolamide
    • Theophylline
    • Oxybutynin
    • Topiramate
  7. Conclusion
  8. FAQs

1. Introduction to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by partial or complete blockage of the upper airways during sleep. It leads to disturbed breathing, which causes snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other symptoms. If left untreated, it can have serious health consequences, such as an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment.

2. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

Continuous positive airway pressure is a widely recognized and highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. It involves the use of a specialized device that delivers a constant stream of pressurized air to keep the airway open during sleep. CPAP therapy is considered the gold standard for moderate to severe cases of OSA. By wearing a mask connected to a CPAP machine, the patient receives a continuous stream of pressurized air that prevents the upper airway from collapsing. This ensures normal breathing throughout the night, reduces the frequency of apnea episodes and improves sleep quality. The therapy provides a number of benefits for people. It helps alleviate snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other related symptoms. In addition, CPAP can significantly reduce the risks associated with untreated OSA, such as cardiovascular problems and cognitive impairment.

The effectiveness of treatment depends on proper use of the device and mask. It is very important to work closely with the health care provider to ensure proper fit and adjust the pressure settings to meet the patient’s needs. Regular observation and maintenance of the mask is critical for optimal results. Although highly effective, some people may find it difficult to get accustomed to wearing the mask while sleeping. However, with patience and persistence, most patients adapt to the therapy and notice a significant improvement in sleep quality and overall well-being.

It is important to note that the therapy must be used continuously, as prescribed by the health care provider. Discontinuing or ignoring CPAP therapy can lead to a return of OSA symptoms and associated health risks. In general, continuous positive airway pressure is a proven and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. It provides a continuous flow of pressurized air to keep the airway open during sleep, reducing episodes of apnea and improving sleep quality. When used correctly and monitored regularly, the treatment can significantly improve people’s well-being.

3. Oral Appliances

Oral Appliances in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Oral appliances are commonly used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea as a non-invasive alternative to continuous positive airway pressure therapy. These devices are designed to be worn during sleep and work by repositioning the jaw and tongue to help keep the airway open. The main purpose of oral aids is to prevent collapse or narrowing of the upper airway, which is the main cause of OSA. By keeping the jaw and tongue extended, these devices help maintain proper alignment and reduce airway obstruction, thereby promoting unobstructed breathing during sleep. There are different types of oral appliances, including mandibular advancement devices (MAD) and tongue retention devices (TRD). MADs are the most common type and work by gradually advancing the lower jaw forward. This helps to increase the space in the back of the pharynx, preventing soft tissue collapse.

TRDs, on the other hand, aim to keep the tongue in an anterior position so that it does not interfere with the airway. They do this by using suction or soft tongue-holding mechanisms. Oral appliances are usually recommended for people with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea, as well as those who cannot tolerate or prefer an alternative to CPAP therapy. They are custom made by dental professionals and are tailored to the patient’s oral cavity and jaw features. One of the advantages of oral appliances is their portability and ease of use. Unlike CPAP machines, which require electricity and a mask, oral appliances are compact, portable and require no external power source. They can be easily carried while traveling, making them a convenient option for those on the go.

Effectiveness of oral appliances can vary depending on severity and individual factors. Follow-up with a health care provider is necessary to monitor progress and make adjustments to the device for optimal results. Oral appliances can be an effective treatment option for many people, they may not be suitable for everyone. Consult with a sleep specialist or dentist experienced in treating sleep apnea to determine the most appropriate course of action based on individual needs and preferences. In general, oral appliances are non-invasive devices used to treat obstructive sleep apnea. By repositioning the jaw and tongue, they help keep the airway open during sleep, reducing airway obstruction and improving breathing. Oral appliances are a viable alternative to therapy, especially for people with mild to moderate OSA.

4. Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation

Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a relatively new approach to treating OSA. It involves implanting a device that delivers mild electrical impulses to the hypoglossal nerve, which controls the movement of the tongue. By stimulating the nerve during sleep, the airway muscles are kept open. This treatment option is generally reserved for patients who cannot tolerate or benefit from CPAP therapy.

5. Upper Airway Surgery

In certain cases of OSA, surgical interventions may be considered to address anatomical abnormalities contributing to airway obstruction. Procedures such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), genioglossus advancement, and hyoid suspension aim to widen and stabilize the upper airway. However, surgery is typically recommended when other treatment options have failed or are not suitable.

6. Pharmacological Interventions

Pharmacological interventions are used as adjunct therapies or when other treatment options are not feasible. While drugs cannot cure OSA, they can help manage symptoms and improve daytime alertness. Here are some commonly prescribed medications:

6.1 Modafinil

Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent used to combat excessive sleepiness associated with OSA. It works by affecting certain neurotransmitters in the brain to promote wakefulness. Drug has been shown to improve cognitive function and reduce daytime sleepiness, but it does not address the underlying airway obstruction.

6.2 Armodafinil

Armodafinil is another drug used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness in OSA. It is similar in mechanism of action to modafinil, but has a longer half-life. The pills help people stay awake and alert during the day, but they do not treat the underlying cause of the condition.

6.3 Protriptyline

Protriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant sometimes prescribed to OSA patients. It can help reduce the frequency of apnea episodes by stimulating certain receptors that affect airway muscles. However, it may have side effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness.

6.4 Acetazolamide

Acetazolamide is a medication primarily used to treat altitude sickness but can also be prescribed for OSA. It works by stimulating ventilation and increasing respiratory drive. However, its effectiveness in managing symptoms is limited, and it may cause side effects such as frequent urination and tingling sensations.

6.5 Theophylline

Theophylline is a bronchodilator commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It can also help improve breathing in some OSA patients. However, it requires careful monitoring of blood levels due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

6.6 Oxybutynin

Oxybutynin is a medication primarily used to treat overactive bladder symptoms but may be prescribed off-label. It can help relax certain muscles, including those in the upper airway, potentially reducing apnea episodes. However, its use for OSA is not widespread, and further research is needed to establish its efficacy.

6.7 Topiramate

Topiramate is an antiepileptic drug that can also be used as an adjunct therapy for OSA. It works by increasing the upper airway’s muscle tone, helping to reduce the likelihood of obstruction during sleep. However, it may cause side effects such as tingling sensations, memory problems, and weight loss.

7. Conclusion

Obstructive sleep apnea is a complex sleep disorder that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. While continuous positive airway pressure remains the gold standard treatment, various drugs can be used as adjunct therapies or alternatives for patients who cannot tolerate CPAP. However, it’s important to note that pharmacological interventions do not address the underlying cause of OSA and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. In conclusion, while drugs play a role in managing obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, they should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that includes lifestyle modifications and appropriate medical interventions. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most suitable approach for your specific condition.

8. FAQs

  1. Are drugs a cure for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • No, drugs cannot cure obstructive sleep apnea. They are used as adjunct therapies to manage symptoms and improve daytime alertness.
  2. Can I stop using CPAP if I take medication for OSA?
    • Medication should not be considered a substitute for CPAP therapy. It is important to follow the treatment plan recommended by your healthcare provider.
  3. Are there any side effects of the drugs used for OSA?
    • Yes, different drugs can have varying side effects. It is essential to discuss potential side effects and interactions with your healthcare provider.
  4. Can I take multiple drugs for OSA simultaneously?
    • The combination of drugs for OSA should be carefully evaluated by a healthcare professional to ensure safety and efficacy.
  5. How long does it take for the drugs to show their effects?
    • The onset of action and effectiveness of drugs may vary. It’s important to follow the prescribed dosage and give the medication time to work.

‼️ Disclaimer: The information provided in this article about modafinil is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical consultation or recommendations. The author of the articleare not responsible for any errors, omissions, or actions based on the information provided.

  • Omachi TA, Claman DM, Blanc PD, Eisner MD. Obstructive sleep apnea: a risk factor for work disability. Sleep. 2009.
  • Young T, Peppard PE, Gottlieb DJ. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective. 2002.
  • Czeisler CA, Walsh JK, Wesnes KA, Arora S, Roth T. Armodafinil for treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder: a randomized controlled study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009.
  • Darwish M, Kirby M, Hellriegel ET, Robertson P. Armodafinil and modafinil have substantially different pharmacokinetic profiles despite having the same terminal half-lives. Clin Drug Investig. 2009.
  • Harsh JR, Hayduk R, Rosenberg R, et al. The efficacy and safety of armodafinil as treatment for adults with excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006.
  • Hirshkowitz M, Black JE, Wesnes K, Niebler G, Arora S, Roth T. Adjunct armodafinil improves wakefulness and memory in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Respir Med. 2007.
  • Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1991.

Treatment of autism with modafinil and hypersensitivity to noise

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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by challenges in social interaction, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. Additionally, individuals with autism often experience sensory abnormalities, including hypersensitivity to various stimuli such as noise. The heightened sensitivity to sound can significantly impact their daily lives and contribute to anxiety and behavioral issues. Researchers have been exploring potential treatments to alleviate this hypersensitivity, and recent studies on mouse models of autism have shown promising results with the use of modafinil and EBIO. This article delves into the effectiveness of these compounds in reducing hypersensitivity to noise and their potential as therapeutic options for individuals with autism.

Treatment of autism with modafinil
  1. Introduction
  2. Understanding the Mouse Model of Autism
  3. Exploring Modafinil as a Potential Treatment
  4. Examining EBIO as an Alternative Treatment
  5. Combination Therapy with Modafinil and EBIO
  6. Mechanisms of Action in Reducing Hypersensitivity to Noise
  7. Translational Potential for Human Autism Treatment
  8. Conclusion
  9. FAQ

1. Introduction

Autism affects millions of people worldwide, with estimates indicating a prevalence of approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States alone. Hypersensitivity to noise is a common sensory issue experienced by individuals on the autism spectrum. The auditory system of individuals with autism can be overly responsive to certain frequencies or intensities of sound, leading to discomfort and an aversive response. This hypersensitivity can significantly impact their quality of life, making it crucial to explore novel treatments to mitigate this symptom.

2. Understanding the Mouse Model of Autism

Mouse models play a pivotal role in autism research due to the similarities between the genetic and behavioral characteristics of mice and humans. These models exhibit autism-like behaviors, including social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and sensory abnormalities. One prominent phenotype observed in mouse models is hypersensitivity to noise, mirroring the sensory issues experienced by individuals with autism.

3. Exploring Modafinil as a Potential Treatment

Modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent, has garnered attention for its potential therapeutic effects in various neurological conditions. This compound primarily affects the dopamine and norepinephrine systems in the brain, modulating arousal and attention. Several studies have investigated the impact of modafinil on autism-like behaviors in mouse models, with promising outcomes. Notably, modafinil administration has been shown to reduce hypersensitivity to noise in these mice, suggesting its potential as a treatment option.

4. Examining EBIO as an Alternative Treatment

EBIO, short for ethyl-1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-carboxylate, is a compound known to modulate ion channels and potassium currents in the brain. Research has demonstrated its efficacy in improving cognitive and behavioral impairments in various neurological disorders. Studies investigating EBIO’s effects on autism-like behaviors in mice have also shown promising results. Specifically, EBIO administration has been found to alleviate hypersensitivity to noise, offering an alternative approach to managing this sensory symptom.

5. Combination Therapy with Modafinil and EBIO

Combination Therapy with Modafinil

Combining therapies with complementary mechanisms of action has gained attention in the field of autism research. Researchers have explored the potential synergistic effects of modafinil and EBIO in mouse models, considering their distinct pharmacological targets. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of these compounds can lead to greater reductions in noise hypersensitivity compared to individual treatments. This suggests that combination therapy could offer enhanced benefits and improved outcomes for individuals with autism.

6. Mechanisms of Action in Reducing Hypersensitivity to Noise

The precise neurobiological mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity to noise in autism are complex and multifaceted. However, modafinil and EBIO have been shown to modulate various neurotransmitter systems implicated in sensory processing. Modafinil primarily acts on dopamine and norepinephrine, enhancing arousal and attention regulation, while EBIO affects potassium channels, which play a crucial role in neuronal excitability and sensory gating. By targeting these pathways, both compounds can potentially modulate neural circuits and normalize sensory processing, thereby reducing noise hypersensitivity.

7. Translational Potential for Human Autism Treatment

While mouse models provide valuable insights into autism-related mechanisms, it is essential to acknowledge the limitations in directly translating findings to human clinical trials. However, the promising results obtained from studies using modafinil and EBIO in mouse models lay the groundwork for further investigations in humans. Clinical trials assessing the safety and efficacy of these compounds in individuals with autism are needed to determine their potential as therapeutic options. If successful, these treatments could offer hope for individuals affected by noise hypersensitivity and potentially other sensory issues associated with autism.

8. Conclusion

Hypersensitivity to noise is a significant challenge faced by individuals with autism, impacting their well-being and daily functioning. The research on modafinil and EBIO in mouse models has provided promising results, indicating their potential as therapeutic options for reducing noise hypersensitivity. Combining these treatments could offer synergistic effects and enhanced outcomes. However, further research and clinical trials are necessary to fully understand their efficacy and safety in human populations. With continued advancements in autism research, targeted treatments addressing sensory abnormalities could greatly improve the lives of individuals with autism and their families.

9. FAQ

  1. Can modafinil and EBIO completely cure autism?
    • Modafinil and EBIO are not intended as cures for autism. However, they show potential in reducing specific symptoms associated with autism, such as hypersensitivity to noise. It’s important to note that autism is a complex disorder with diverse manifestations, and individual responses to treatments may vary.
  2. Are modafinil and EBIO approved for autism treatment?
    • Currently, modafinil and EBIO are not approved specifically for autism treatment. They are primarily used in other medical contexts. However, ongoing research aims to explore their potential benefits in managing specific symptoms associated with autism, including noise hypersensitivity.
  3. What are the potential side effects of modafinil and EBIO?
    • Modafinil and EBIO may have side effects, and their safety profiles in the context of autism treatment are still being investigated. Common side effects of modafinil may include headache, nausea, and insomnia, while EBIO may be associated with gastrointestinal discomfort and dizziness. It is important to consult with healthcare professionals for a comprehensive understanding of potential risks and benefits.
  4. How long does it take to see improvements with modafinil and EBIO?
    • The timeframe for experiencing improvements with modafinil and EBIO may vary among individuals. It depends on factors such as dosage, treatment duration, and an individual’s unique response to the medications. Clinical trials and medical supervision can provide insights into the expected timelines and individualized treatment plans.
  5. Is noise hypersensitivity the only symptom targeted by these treatments?
    • While noise hypersensitivity is a specific symptom addressed in the context of modafinil and EBIO treatments, these compounds may have broader effects on other aspects of autism-like behaviors. However, further research is needed to fully understand the range of symptoms that can potentially be influenced by these treatments.

‼️ Disclaimer: The information provided in this article about modafinil is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical consultation or recommendations. The author of the articleare not responsible for any errors, omissions, or actions based on the information provided.

How Modafinil Shifts Activity During Functional MRI Brain

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The human brain is a complex organ, consisting of numerous regions and structures that work together to govern our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Among these regions, the locus coeruleus, located in the brainstem, plays a crucial role in regulating various cognitive functions. Recent research has shed light on the effects of Modafinil, a well-known wakefulness-promoting medication, on the locus coeruleus during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. This article explores the fascinating relationship between Modafinil, the locus coeruleus, and brain activity patterns, unveiling potential implications for cognitive enhancement and therapeutic interventions.

Functional MRI & Modafinil

Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. Understanding the Locus Coeruleus
  3. Modafinil Impact on the Locus Coeruleus
  4. Low-Tonic, High-Phasic Activity
  5. Functional MRI and Modafinil
  6. Implications and Applications
  7. Limitations and Future Research
  8. Conclusion
  9. FAQ

1. Introduction

Modafinil, a eugeroic drug, was initially developed to treat sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, and shift work sleep disorder. It is known for its ability to promote wakefulness, increase alertness, and enhance cognitive performance. As researchers delved deeper into Smart pills mechanisms of action, they discovered its impact on the locus coeruleus, a small nucleus in the brainstem responsible for the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.

2. Understanding the Locus Coeruleus

The locus coeruleus, often referred to as the “blue spot,” is a region rich in norepinephrine-producing neurons. Norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter involved in arousal, attention, and stress responses, is crucial for regulating brain functions. The locus coeruleus receives signals from various brain regions and projects norepinephrine to widespread areas, exerting a modulatory influence on cognition, mood, and behavior.

3. Modafinil Impact on the Locus Coeruleus

Modafinil Impact on the Locus Coeruleus

Studies have shown that the drug affects the locus coeruleus by increasing the release of noradrenaline. This increase in norepinephrine levels leads to changes in the activity of the locus coeruleus neurons. Specifically, the pills promote a shift in the activity of the locus coeruleus neurons from a low-tonic, baseline excitation pattern to a high-phase, burst-like excitation pattern. This shift is thought to contribute to modafinil wakefulness-promoting effects and its effects on cognitive function.

4. Low-Tonic, High-Phasic Activity

Low-tonic, high-phasic activity refers to a pattern of neuronal firing where neurons exhibit baseline firing at a low frequency but intermittently spike to a high frequency. In the context of the locus coeruleus, this pattern represents a transition from a relatively stable state to a more activated state. The shift to high-phasic activity is associated with increased alertness, attention, and cognitive performance.

5. Functional MRI and Modafinil

Functional MRI (fMRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique that measures changes in brain activity by determining blood oxygen saturation levels. Several studies have used fMRI to study the effects of modafinil on the locus coeruleus. These studies have shown that taking it leads to increased blood oxygen saturation in the locus coeruleus, indicating increased activity during fMRI scans. The results support the hypothesis that the drug induces a transition to low-tonic, high-phase activity in the locus coeruleus.

6. Implications and Applications

The observed shift in locus coeruleus activity induced by Modafinil has significant implications. By promoting a state of high-phasic activity, pills may enhance cognitive functions such as attention, working memory, and decision-making. This potential cognitive enhancement opens doors for applications in fields where optimal mental performance is crucial, such as academia, professions requiring long periods of focus, and tasks involving complex problem-solving.

7. Limitations and Future Research

Although current studies provide valuable insights into the effects of modafinil on locus coeruleus, there are a number of limitations. Many studies have mainly focused on healthy individuals, and further studies are needed to examine the effects of the smart drug on people with cognitive impairment or neurological disorders. In addition, long-term effects, optimal dosage, and potential side effects need to be carefully studied. Future research should address these limitations and provide a fuller understanding of its effects on locus coeruleus.

8. Conclusion

In conclusion, the drug has an effect on the locus coeruleus, a vital brain region involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. By switching the locus coeruleus to a low-tonic and high-phase excitation pattern, it promotes wakefulness and potentially improves cognitive function. The use of fMRI has provided valuable insights into these effects, confirming the hypothesis of increased locus coeruleus activity during modafinil administration. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to uncover the full extent of the pill’s effects, to explore its potential uses, and to address existing limitations.

9. FAQ

  1. What is Modafinil?
    • Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting medication used to treat sleep disorders and enhance cognitive performance. It is known for its ability to increase alertness and promote wakefulness.
  2. Is Modafinil safe to use?
    • He is generally considered safe when used as prescribed. However, like any medication, it may have potential side effects and should be used under medical supervision.
  3. Are there any side effects associated with Modafinil?
    • Common side effects of Modafinil include headache, nausea, dizziness, and insomnia. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, and individuals should consult their healthcare provider if they experience any adverse reactions.
  4. Can Modafinil improve cognitive performance?
    • Drug has shown potential for enhancing cognitive performance, particularly in tasks requiring sustained attention, working memory, and complex problem-solving.

‼️ Disclaimer: The information provided in this article about modafinil is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical consultation or recommendations. The author of the articleare not responsible for any errors, omissions, or actions based on the information provided.

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The event Modafinil 2024: Speech by Dr. Dave Lewis and Dr. James Anderson

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Keynote Speakers

Venue and Attendance

Pharmacological Profile

Clinical Applications

Recent Research

Modafinil in Everyday Use

Managing Side Effects

Legal and Ethical Considerations

Future Research and Innovations

Key Takeaways

Modafinil, talk therapy both ease MS-related fatigue 2024

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Multiple sclerosis and modafinil

1. Introduction

2. Understanding MS Fatigue

3. Modafinil: A Wakefulness-Promoting Agent

4. Talk Therapy: Addressing the Emotional Impact of MS

Recent Studies on Modafinil and Talk Therapy for MS Fatigue

Combining Modafinil and Talk Therapy for Maximum Relief

Modafinil and Talk Therapy for Maximum Relief

ACTRIMS is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of multiple sclerosis (MS) research, treatment, and education. The organization holds an annual forum, which is one of the largest gatherings of MS professionals in North America. The forum provides a platform for researchers, clinicians, and other professionals in the field of MS to share their latest findings, discuss treatment strategies, and explore new research directions.

Questions discussed on the forum

6. Conclusion

7. FAQs

8. Final Thoughts